Here we continue (from a previous article) to study the Kaaba, spiritual centre of Islam, from the point of view of megalithic science. We will restrict ourselves to considering the astronomy which word means relating to the stars (sidereal), and appears to hark back to a past world where the movements of stars were considered by naked-eye astronomers to hold some religious meaning, religion in turn meaning to "reconnect" to a spiritual world.
It was suggested in a book by Bryan Penprase that the Kaaba, and Mecca, had been located geographically so as to have a north eastern sightline to the moonrise on the horizon at Maximum Standstill, and that Canopus rose to the south east, then at right angles to that sightline* at the time of the prophet Mohammad after 600 CE.
* (but not the summer solstice as suggested)
In the present Kaaba, probably similar in form to that Mohammad himself helped rebuild, the longest dimension is towards Canopus, the shorter sides being SW-NE. The significance of the SW alignment is far from empty since (a) the semi circular area called the Hatim is an outdoor annex to that SW wall and (b) the alignment would have pointed to the axis of the lunar orbit at Maximum Standstill, at the moment of moonrise. Thus Canopus formed the southern pole of the lunar axis at that moment, whilst Canopus is traditionally symbolic as having been near the southern Pole of the earth, at the time of the so-called Golden Age, when the spring Equinox stood within the zodiacal sign of Leo the lion.
The Hatim would be a perfect representation of the circumpolar region of the golden age. In 600CE our present pole star (Polaris) marked the Pole but only at midnight, being higher in the sky as the Polaris slowly approached its present position beside the actual North Pole, to become a rare unmoving marker of it, and a true pole star. The culmination of Polaris in 600CE therefore gave the nomadic traveller a bearing to true north at night. CyberSky allows us to see the northern sky at Mecca in 600 CE:
Polaris can be seen above the north celestial pole at the latitude of Mecca.