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The first aggregate length evolved by Carnac’s astronomical culture was the megalithic yard. Le Manio’s Quadrilateral presents its discovery as the relationship between the solar year of 365.25 days and the lunar year of 12 months, about eleven days shorter, over three years. Reconciling these two types of year enables the behaviour of the sun and the moon to be understood numerically, as lengths. Day-inch counters took the common factor between the two periods and saw that time cycles have points that resynchronise: Three years is a near anniversary of the sun and moon in the same phase or relationship.

Le Manio therefore presents a triangle in which the solar year is the longer side and the lunar year the shorter. As that triangle grows with the counting, at the end of the third solar year the moon’s phase is nearly that of three years before, irrespective of the starting point of the count. 




Figure 1 The day counting line defined by the midsummer solstice at Le Manio Quadrilateral. Above: Photo of the site from the north-east. Left: Photo of the distinctive “sun gate” including stone P where the counting began. Bottom right: the geometry that can generate the megalithic yard as a difference in day-inch counts for three lunar and three solar years.

The difference in length of the three solar and three lunar year counts can be quantified as the difference between 1095 ¾ and 1063 1/8th day-inches, if 1/8th of a day-inch was an achievable level of accuracy. The differential length appears at Le Manio between stone Q and Q’ as being 32 5/8ths day-inches, within the range of the megalithic yard identified by Alexander Thom throughout Britain and at Carnac.

The situation as found by my brother and I is as in figure 1. The three solar years count, made at the sun’s summer solstice angle, is that of a 3-4-5 triangle (to stone G), reaching three solar years at a dressed edge at stone R. This end of the solar count was made to form a right angled triangle above the southern kerb of stones at a point Q, where three lunar years of counting comes to an end, all counts starting from the distinctive Sun Gate.

The megalithic yard represents something cosmic, that divides into both the solar and lunar years and many monuments employ this yard within their construction, not just for reasons of time counting but also for building many other structures, such as those based upon the 3-4-5 triangle, found at this latitude because the triangle locates the summer and winter solstice sun on the horizon to east and west - the Crucuno (three-by-four) Rectangle being a perfect example.


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This paper presents the theory that in the Megalithic period, around 4500-4000 BCE, astronomical time periods were counted as one day to one inch to form primitive metrological lengths that could then be compared, to reveal the fundamental ratios between the solar year, lunar year, and lunar month and hence define a solar-lunar calendar. The means for comparison used was to place lengths as the longer sides of right angled triangles, leading to a unique slope angle. Our March 2010 survey of Le Manio (included) supports this theory.

ommlm 1


Robin and Richard Heath at Le Manio during the week of our Survey

Following the discovery of such a triangle at Le Manio near Carnac, Brittany, the authors conducted a theodolite survey to accurately establish that both three and four solar year counts had been made in day-inches along the azimuth associated with the midsummer sunrise at that latitude, an angle itself generated between the longer sides of a 3:4:5 triangle (the simplest Pythagorean triangle).

ommlm 2 

The Crucuno Rectangle exemplifies the fact that, at the latitude of Carnac in Brittany,
the solstice sun, in midsummer and midwinter, shines along the 5 side of a 3-4-5 triangle
with 4-side aligned east-west.

The difference in day-inches between three solar years and three lunar years was confirmed as being a megalithic yard of 32.7 inches within the monument, showing that the megalithic yard emerges naturally from day-inch counting the sun and moon over three years.

ommlm 3 

The basic truth about the Le Manio Monument is that through counting
solar and lunar years in day-inches, over a three year period,
the megalithic yard used around Carnac was naturally "manufactured".

The invariant proportion of this soli-lunar triangle can be seen at Le Manio as that formed by the diagonal between four squares of equal side length and this generates a natural reading of metres since the modern metre is 4/3 the day-inch count for a lunar month.

ommlm 4 

The monument reveals a 3 to 4 year relationship that involves the supposedly modern
unit of length, the Metre, as being 4/3 of the day-inch count for one lunar month

Finally, the angle of the Quadrilateral is revealed as adapted to the right angle of the three year triangle towards the East of its southern kerb.

ommlm 5 

The angle of the monument can be reproduced by extending the southern kerb and forming
a triangle to the east that relates the lunar month to the lunar orbit,
in interesting metrological ways

It can be inferred that later metrology was derived from such a starting point since the inch and an “English” foot of twelve inches are commensurate with the metrological units of the historical period.

read the PDF

The information below (without diagrams and using the rational logic of our functional mathematics: of equating things, dividing or multiplying both sides, transfering across the equation using reciprocation, and so on) leads to a verbose and quite hard to understand how the unit of length in day-inches for 4 eclipse years (EY) is the same length as one quarter of a day count for the the moon's nodal period of 6800 days (18.618 years), if then counted in megalithic inches (MI = 0.815") of which there are 40 in a (Carnac) megalithic yard (CMY) and 100 MI in a megalithic rod (MR = 2.5 CMY). An article is in preparation demonstrates how much easier was the megalithic approach to understanding this strange equation, found at Le Menec's western cromlech, where the radius of the forming circle is 17 MR = 4 EY = 1386.48 day-inches = 1700 day-MI.

A Follow up to this Article now exists, called Origin of the Megalithic Inch ... using megalithic numerate thinking

first published on, Monday, 30 April 2012 12:57

At Le Menec, the western cromlech's radius of 17 megalithic rods = 42.5 megalithic yards was first found to equal four eclipse years in day-inch counting but then seen to contain the same number of megalithic inches (1700) as would be generated by counting one quarter of the moon's nodal period of 18.6 years (6800 days). (See Sacred Number and the Lords of Time page 98-99 or PDF: The Meaning of Le Menec)

The number of these two types of inch, found within seventeen megalithic rods, cannot without a reason correspond to the number of days in (a) four eclipse years (a length of time significant as being the Octon eclipse cycle) and (b) one quarter of the moon's nodal period. Two such unlikely correspondences occurring within the same unit length (effectively multiplying each individual unlikeliness) forming a probability lower than either taken individually.

There is therefore likely to be a systematic reason for why this singular length should simultaneously represent the key day counts for eclipse year and the related nodal cycle that regulates eclipses.

The nodal cycle can be expressed as equal to 19.618 eclipse years and 19.618 eclipse years, divided by four eclipse years, is the ratio 4.9045, which ratio is six times a megalithic inch of 0.8174 inches. This numerical value for the megalithic inch is therefore 19.618 eclipse years divided by 24 eclipse years, and the latter period is six times 17 megalithic rods or 255 megalithic yards. This would make a megalithic yard equal to 24 eclipse years of day-inch counting divided by 255  or 32.623 day-inches, as found at Carnac.

The three main types of year, solar, lunar and eclipse, are therefore commensurate, dividing into each other in a rational fashion, involving whole numbers. 

This megalithic yard was derived at Le Manio’s Quadrilateral (PDF) from a day-inch count enabling three lunar years to be subtracted from three solar years, to make a megalithic yard then defined as,

megalithic yard = 3 times (Solar Year minus the Lunar Year)

or 3*(365.25 - 354.375) = 261/8 =32.625 day-inches

Since, as above, 24 eclipse years as a day count equals 255 MY then,

The eclipse year, EY = 255/24 x 3*(SY - LY) = 30 * 17/16 * (SY - LY)

and (SY - LY) = 87/8 = 10.875 days

Therefore, EY = 30 * 17/16 * 87/8 day-inches    (relationship A)

the solar, lunar, eclipse years being abbreviated as SY, LY, EY 

This can be expressed as, the eclipse year is thirty times the ratio of the squares of the solar and lunar years times the excess of the solar year over the lunar year.

Meanwhile, the moon's nodal period of 19.618 eclipse years is 6800 days long  = 17 ×4 ×100 days. Le Menec's western cromlech has a radius of 17 megalithic rods which equal 17 x 100 megalithic inches, where a megalithic inch (M-inch) is 1/40th of a megalithic yard, 1/100th of a megalithic rod. This length at Le Menec is therefore a quarter count for one lunar nodal period, counting one day per megalithic inch so that 

an eclipse year (EY) in megalithic inches equals  
(17 * 4 * 100)/ 19.618
 megalithic-inches   (relationship B) 
which is that same length as 
30 * 17/16 * 87/8 day-inches   (relationship A)


 (17 * 4 * 100)/ 19.618  megalithic-inches = 30 * 17/16 * 87/8 day-inches

The number of eclipse years in the nodal cycle is therefore numerically produced when 19.618 is taken to one side as,

 400/30 * 17/16 * 8/87 = 19.616585

This demonstrates the identity within the parallel usage of inches to count four eclipse years and megalithic inches to count one quarter of a nodal cycle as the same length of seventeen megalithic rods found as the radius of Le Menec’s western cromlech.

A Follow up to this Article now exists, called Origin of the Megalithic Inch, using megalithic numerate thinking.

Hosted by Howard Crowhurst, who has lived in Brittany and studied the megaliths around the Carnac area for decades, Anthony Blake shot this film of the DuVersity's Enchanted Albion Tour in 2004. 


Gavrinis Island has a large Cairn within which the finest megalithic art is to be found, on most of 28 its upright stones, these used to create a corridor and end chamber. The Sun and Moon, at their (independent) extreme positions on the southeastern horizon, shine into the corridor and illuminate its end chamber with their light. The stones appear to manifest a type of technical notation associated with the design of megalithic monuments and the observation of astronomical phenomena involving these. The engraved stones are variously weathered and used to be outdoors before their reuse within the corridor and chamber around 3,500 BC, and the cairn was sealed by 3,000 BC, so the Knights Templar entered its top but only saw the (engraved) upper side of the roof slab, itself related, as part of the Er Grah Grand Menhir, to the Lochmariquer complex 4Km west (see my other youtube video)

Locmariaquer, Le Menec and the Alignments

This film reveals some of the most significant features of one of the world's most significant megalithic sites, dated 4000+ BCE. The three main components are the "Grand Menhir" (Er Grah), the Tumulus de Er Grah and a Dolmen called Table des Marchands, at Locmariaquer near Carnac Brittany France. The Enchanted Albion Tour also included Chartres, Mont St Michell, Stonehenge, Avebury, Edinburgh, and Orkney megaliths. *Howard Crowhurst is an English speaking expert who has lived near Carnac for many decades and helps organise events at

For more on Gavrinis and Lochmariaquer and their importance for understanding the  achievements of megalithic astronomy and their role in establishing the number sciences of the ancient Near East, please read my book Sacred Number and the Lords of Time

This article first published at

Le Manio is a megalithic complex above and between Carnac and Loqmariaquer, in Southern Brittany's Bay of Quiberon. It is named after a large menhir, also called "the giant", which forms a foresight from all over the district, to extreme horizon events of the sun and moon, to both north and south of east-west. The site is on the highest hill in what is a low landscape and it has two components that are interlinked.

  1. The first is Menhir Geant and La Dame du Manio, embedded in the earth, which are sited on an exact east west line so as to manifest 3-4-5 triangles
  2. Above is The Quadrilateral, which has a unique shape made out of kerbs of stone, some touching, perhaps connected to the Geant and Dame in a proposed geometry involving 12-13-5 triangles.
Le Manio's Quadrilateral from the north east. The menhir is off-frame 
to the left and hence to the south.

The Monument(s) of Le Manio

A circa 2008 survey by ACEM produced data that enabled the geometries between the two to be quantified once it was recognised that megalithic yards had been employed. The result is as Figure 1, with one extra summer sunrise alignment added within the Quadrilateral.

Copy of LeManio Observatory SIMPLE

Figure 1 The geometry proposed by ACEM based upon their circa 2008 survey, with distances converted from metres to megalithic yards and an extra alignment within the Quadrilateral noticed by Robin Heath in the 2009 summer solstice event.

It is obvious from the exact numbers of megalithic yards that the geometry was conceived and laid out using this unit, the lower 3-4-5 triangle even using ten units for the 3, 4 and 5. The two 12-13-5 triangles appear to relate the location of the Quadrilateral to a point J in the north and the upper 3-4-5 triangle locates what was  called the "sun gate" at point P, points being exact survey pins.

The two 3-4-5 triangles are in a familiar "piggy backed" arrangement enabling the summer solstice sunrise to shine down the (lower) four-side and the winter solstice sunrise to shine in the sun gate on the (upper) five-side (an observation made by Howard Crowhurst. The five side of the (lower) 3-4-5 triangle then provides two 25 MY lengths that fit perfectly with the five-sides of the "back-to-back" 12-13-5 triangles. 

Copy of MRBB-COVERThe Quadrilateral and Geant appear in Alexander Thom's 1978 book Megalithic Remains in Britain and Brittany (Clarendon Oxford), who surveyed The Alignments and the network of menhirs, calling the Geant, menhir M. I have adapted his site plan to represent the Quadrilateral above but it is not clear where his plan came from. 

My brother and I came to survey the monument again in spring equinox 2010 after Robin had identified the midsummer solstice alignment from the Quadrilateral's sun gate, point P, at the previous summer solstice event. He recognised the signature 14 degree angle of a "lunation triangle" and tapes revealed the structure as being coded three inches to the day. However, my own work on day-inch counting was looking for an exemplar monument and it was known that a count over three years would automatically generate a megalithic yard length. This unbelievable good luck gave an exemplar monument for a count over three years that needed to survey the Quadrilateral in more detail.

After the survey I worked on the published survey document for about three months before moving on to working on possible simulators and then the Le Menec western cromlech and alignments, where simulators were transformed into circumpolar observatories. This year has been dominated by publishing analyses on this website based upon the key technologies responsible for the monuments, day-inch counting, metrological triangles and multiple squares, and circumpolar observatory circles; each exceeding the limitations of purely horizonal astronomy in a different way. 

Le Manio, Hanging on the Moon

On returning to Le Manio, this recent work is revising what can be understood about it. As a simple start for this introduction, the reader will notice that the northern kerb is angled relative to the southern kerb. This was thought (Thom MSBB) to be because the northern kerb formed part of an alignment to a stone L, near Le Menec, from which the northern minimum standstill  moonrise could be seen sitting upon this northern kerb. In the world of multiple squares therefore, the kerb defined the diagonal of a double square. But then, the question has always been there as to why the Quadrilateral was at its sharp angle to east, an explanation for which having been given by AAK based on the angle of the southern kerb as being that of a 12-13-5 triangle to east (22.62 degrees), the longest side of which ran down to Le Menec, so having provided an abstract geometrical backbone for the Le Menec and Kermario Alignments.  Perhaps for this reason, Howard Crowhurst had identified the two back-to-back 12-13-5 triangles to point J. Our next article will show this to have been a brilliant direction to take.

Whilst not perfect, the angle of a 12-13-5 triangle adds to a four square diagonal's angle (of Robin's lunation triangle) to arrive at the angle just short of a 3-4-5 triangle's acute angle, thus giving an explanation relative to east as a geometrical combination. This "bottom up" explanation can now be contrasted with a multiple square analysis working "top down", from the lunar minimum, as in Figure 2 below.

Copy of LeManio-Integration-13UNITS

Figure 2 A framework that explains the orientation of Le Manio using the double square diagonal of the moon along the northern kerb. The thirteen square diagonal angle exactly bridges between the angles of the northen and southern kerbs. Note the introduction of a new site plan drawn by Robin Heath which corresponds better to the actual stones and particularly in their width which was often exaggerated in Thom's plan.

The builders probably used a double square to align the northern kerb so as to emphasise that the northern kerb was between (distant) stone L to the west and the minimum standstill moon in the northeast. Meanwhile, the four square diagonal provided by stone R from P means that its base is three times twelve lunar months (lunations) long on its base so that a side length, then of three lunar months, can pack three thirteen square rectangles into the four square, with one left over.

Copy of DSC00126What is attractive about this explanation its lack of abstract components, for everything hangs on the moon and then the sun, except perhaps to explain the function of the three stones north of stone R that have a definite bearing of their own. The day inch counts for three lunar years and three solar years are now joined by three lunar years of thirteen lunar months and this can arc up to hit the important NOTCH found in the northern kerb (see right hand inset: this photo was taken from the notch looking south, on the sightline to Menhir Geant past the three solar year day-inch count at the end of stone Q'.